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Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD , [a] also known colloquially as acid , is a potent psychedelic drug. LSD is considered to be non-addictive with low potential for abuse. Adverse psychological reactions are possible, such as anxiety , paranoia , and delusions. Common effects include visual snow and palinopsia.

In cases where this causes distress or impairment it is diagnosed as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder HPPD. LSD was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in from lysergic acid , a chemical derived from the hydrolysis of ergotamine , an alkaloid found in ergot , a fungus that infects grain. Hofmann discovered its effects in humans in , after unintentionally ingesting an unknown amount, possibly absorbing it through his skin.

LSD-assisted psychotherapy was used in the s and early s by psychiatrists such as Humphry Osmond , who pioneered the application of LSD to the treatment of alcoholism , with promising results. In contrast to schizophrenia, LSD induces transcendental experiences with lasting psychological benefit.

Army Chemical Corps as possible non-lethal incapacitants in the Edgewood Arsenal human experiments. In the s, LSD and other psychedelics were adopted by, and became synonymous with, the counterculture movement due to their perceived ability to expand consciousness. This resulted in LSD being viewed as a cultural threat to American values and the Vietnam war effort , and it was designated as a Schedule I illegal substance in LSD is commonly used as a recreational drug in the company of friends, in large crowds, or by oneself.

LSD can catalyze intense spiritual experiences and is thus considered an entheogen. Some users have reported out of body experiences. LSD currently has no approved uses in medicine.

LSD can cause pupil dilation , reduced appetite , profuse sweating, and wakefulness. Other physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and nonspecific, some of which may be secondary to the psychological effects of LSD. Among the reported symptoms are elevated body temperature, blood sugar , and heart rate, alongside goose bumps , jaw clenching, mouth dryness, and hyperreflexia. In negative experiences, numbness, weakness, nausea, and tremors have also been exhibited.

The most common immediate psychological effects of LSD are visual hallucinations and illusions colloquially known as ” trips ” , which vary depending on how much is used and how the dosage interacts with the brain.

Trips usually start within 20—30 minutes of taking LSD orally less if snorted or taken intravenously , peak three to four hours after ingestion, and can last up to 20 hours in high doses. Users may also experience an ” afterglow ” of improved mood or perceived mental state for days or even weeks after ingestion in some experiences. LSD causes an animated sensory experience of senses , emotions , memories , time, and awareness for 6 to 20 hours, depending on dosage and tolerance.

Changes in auditory and visual perception are also typical. Some sensory effects may include an experience of radiant or more vibrant colors, objects and surfaces appearing to ripple, “breathe,” or otherwise move, spinning fractals superimposed on one’s vision, colored patterns behind closed eyelids, an altered sense of time, geometric patterns emerging on walls and other textured objects, and morphing objects.

Similar effects have also been found in rats. Some report that the inanimate world appears to animate in an inexplicable way; for instance, objects that are static in three dimensions can seem to be moving relative to one or more additional spatial dimensions. Sometimes these effects and patterns can be changed when concentrated on, or can change based on thoughts, emotions or music.

Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synesthesia , the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary dissociation. The most significant adverse effect of LSD was impairment of mental functioning while intoxicated.

LSD may trigger panic attacks or feelings of extreme anxiety, known colloquially as a ” bad trip “. LSD is capable of exacerbating mental illnesses and precipitating the early onset of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals. While publicly available documents indicate that the CIA and Department of Defense have discontinued research into the use of LSD as a means of mind control , [64] research from the s suggests that both mentally ill and healthy people are more suggestible while under its influence.

The etiology of the “flashback” phenomenon appears to be varied. Some researchers such as Krebs and Johansen [70] attribute at least some of the cases to be related to somatic symptom disorder , when people fixate on normal somatic experiences and perceptions that they weren’t aware of before consuming the drug. Other researchers relate it to an associative reaction to a contextual cue akin to what people that have faced trauma or strongly emotional experiences face when receiving a triggering stimulus Holland and Passie [71].

There is no consensus on what are the risk factors but some researchers theorize that pre-existing psychopathologies may be a significant contributor Abraham and Duffy [72]. The prevalence of HPPD is difficult to estimate but appears to be very rare Halpern et al [73] , with estimates ranging from 1 in 20 users for the transitory and less serious type 1 HPPD, to 1 in Contrary to rumors circulating the internet that LSD is stored in the spinal cord or other parts of your body long-term, [75] the pharmacological evidence Passie et all [76] shows LSD has a short half-life of minutes, undergoing enzymatic metabolism into more polar and therefore water-soluble compounds such as 2-oxohydroxy-LSD that are eliminated through the urine.

No evidence of long term storage of LSD in the body exists. The mutagenic potential of LSD is unclear. Overall, the evidence seems to point to limited or no effect at commonly used doses. Tolerance to LSD builds up with consistent use [78] and cross-tolerance has been demonstrated between LSD, mescaline , [79] and psilocybin.

A report in stated that, though there was no “comprehensive review since the s” and “almost no legal clinical research” since the s, there had been “no documented human deaths from an LSD overdose”. Eight individuals who accidentally consumed very high amounts by mistaking LSD for cocaine developed comatose states, hyperthermia, vomiting, gastric bleeding, and respiratory problems—all survived, however, with hospital treatment and without residual effects.

Agitation can be safely addressed with benzodiazepines such as lorazepam or diazepam. Neuroleptics such as haloperidol are not recommended because they may have adverse effects. LSD is rapidly absorbed, so activated charcoal and emptying of the stomach is of little benefit, unless done within 30—60 minutes of ingesting an overdose of LSD. Sedation or physical restraint is rarely required, and excessive restraint may cause complications such as hyperthermia over-heating or rhabdomyolysis.

Massive doses “should be treated with supportive care, including respiratory support and endotracheal intubation if needed. Hypertension [high blood pressure], tachycardia [rapid heart-beat], and hyperthermia should be treated symptomatically.

Hypotension [low blood pressure] should be treated initially with fluids and subsequently with pressors if required. Most serotonergic psychedelics are not significantly dopaminergic , and LSD is therefore atypical in this regard. The agonism of the D 2 receptor by LSD may contribute to its psychoactive effects in humans.

However, most of these receptors are affected at too low affinity to be sufficiently activated by the brain concentration of approximately 10—20 nM. LSD exhibits functional selectivity at the 5-HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in that it activates the signal transduction enzyme phospholipase A2 instead of activating the enzyme phospholipase C as the endogenous ligand serotonin does.

Exactly how LSD produces its effects is unknown, but it is thought that it works by increasing glutamate release in the cerebral cortex [82] and therefore excitation in this area, specifically in layers IV and V.

The effects of LSD normally last between 6 and 12 hours depending on dosage, tolerance, body weight, and age. The effects of the dose of LSD given lasted for up to 12 hours and were closely correlated with the concentrations of LSD present in circulation over time, with no acute tolerance observed.

LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist. The C-5 isomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from d -lysergic acid. Retrosynthetically , the C-5 stereocenter could be analysed as having the same configuration of the alpha carbon of the naturally occurring amino acid L- tryptophan , the precursor to all biosynthetic ergoline compounds.

However, LSD and iso-LSD, the two C-8 isomers, rapidly interconvert in the presence of bases , as the alpha proton is acidic and can be deprotonated and reprotonated. Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be separated by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD.

Pure salts of LSD are triboluminescent , emitting small flashes of white light when shaken in the dark. LSD is an ergoline derivative. It is commonly synthesized by reacting diethylamine with an activated form of lysergic acid. Activating reagents include phosphoryl chloride [] and peptide coupling reagents. A single dose of LSD may be between 40 and micrograms—an amount roughly equal to one-tenth the mass of a grain of sand. Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 25 micrograms of LSD.

By comparison, dosages of most drugs, both recreational and medicinal, are measured in milligrams mg , or thousandths of a gram. For example, an active dose of mescaline , roughly 0. As a salt, in water, cold, and free from air and light exposure, it is stable indefinitely.

LSD has two labile protons at the tertiary stereogenic C5 and C8 positions, rendering these centers prone to epimerisation.

The C8 proton is more labile due to the electron-withdrawing carboxamide attachment, but removal of the chiral proton at the C5 position which was once also an alpha proton of the parent molecule tryptophan is assisted by the inductively withdrawing nitrogen and pi electron delocalisation with the indole ring. LSD also has enamine -type reactivity because of the electron-donating effects of the indole ring. Because of this, chlorine destroys LSD molecules on contact; even though chlorinated tap water contains only a slight amount of chlorine, the small quantity of compound typical to an LSD solution will likely be eliminated when dissolved in tap water.

A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of LSD in pooled urine samples. Urine fortified with LSD and stored in amber glass or nontransparent polyethylene containers showed no change in concentration under any light conditions. Stability of LSD in transparent containers under light was dependent on the distance between the light source and the samples, the wavelength of light, exposure time, and the intensity of light.

It was also demonstrated that trace amounts of metal ions in buffer or urine could catalyze the decomposition of LSD and that this process can be avoided by the addition of EDTA. LSD may be quantified in urine as part of a drug abuse testing program , in plasma or serum to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized victims or in whole blood to assist in a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a case of sudden death.

Both the parent drug and its major metabolite are unstable in biofluids when exposed to light, heat or alkaline conditions and therefore specimens are protected from light, stored at the lowest possible temperature and analyzed quickly to minimize losses. Maximum plasma concentrations were found to be 1.

LSD can be detected using an Ehrlich’s reagent and a Hofmann’s reagent. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring , I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away.

LSD was first synthesized on November 16, [] by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel , Switzerland as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives. LSD’s psychedelic properties were discovered 5 years later when Hofmann himself accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical. He said this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated.

The project was revealed in the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report in LSD became central to the counterculture of the s. Veysey they profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until By the mids, the youth countercultures in California , particularly in San Francisco , had adopted the use of hallucinogenic drugs, with the first major underground LSD factory established by Owsley Stanley.

The Psychedelic Shop helped to further popularize LSD in the Haight and to make the neighborhood the unofficial capital of the hippie counterculture in the United States.



What does l.s.d stand for –

The effects of LSD normally last between 6 and 12 hours depending on dosage, tolerance, body weight, and age. By mouth , under the tongue , intravenous.


What is LSD? How is LSD Made? What Does LSD Look Like? – Drug-Free World.

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is a synthetic chemical, made from a substance found in ergot, which is a fungus that infects rye (grain). Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known colloquially as acid, is a potent psychedelic drug. Effects typically include intensified thoughts, emotions, and.