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The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt , while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia.

It covers about 4,, km 2 1,, sq mi , which is Its total population is more than million, about 8. Southeast Asia was home to one of the few regions across Eurasia that did not get subsumed by the Mongol Empire. However, most modern Southeast Asian countries were also previously European colonial states , with the only exception being Siam Thailand nowadays.

Subsequent to this history, several Southeast Asian countries were also subsumed under the Imperial Japanese Empire. The region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions.

In the 20th century, however, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The maritime section of Southeast Asia is also known as the Malay Archipelago , a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia. However, by the late s, a roughly standard usage of the term “Southeast Asia” and the territories it encompasses had emerged.

Sovereignty issues exist over some islands in the South China Sea. While Peninsular Malaysia is geographically situated in Mainland Southeast Asia , it shares many similar cultural and ecological affinities with surrounding islands, thus it is often grouped with them as part of Maritime Southeast Asia.

On some occasions, Sri Lanka has been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural and religious ties to Mainland Southeast Asia. East Timor and the eastern half of Indonesia east of the Wallace Line in the region of Wallacea are considered to be geographically associated with Oceania due to their distinctive faunal features.

Geologically, the island of New Guinea and its surrounding islands are considered as parts of the Australian continent , connected via the Sahul Shelf. Even though they are geographically closer to Maritime Southeast Asia than mainland Australia , these two Australian external territories are not geologically associated with Asia as none of them is actually on the Sunda Plate.

The United Nations geoscheme has classified both island territories as parts of Oceania , under the Australia and New Zealand Australasia subregion.

Some definitions of Southeast Asia may include Taiwan. The region was already inhabited by Homo erectus from approximately 1,, years ago during the Middle Pleistocene age. Ancient remains of hunter-gatherers in Maritime Southeast Asia, such as one Holocene hunter-gatherer from South Sulawesi , had ancestry from both, the South-Eurasian lineage represented by Papuans and Aboriginal Australians , and the East-Eurasian lineage represented by East Asians.

The authors concluded that East Asian-related ancestry expanded from Mainland Southeast Asia into Maritime Southeast Asia much earlier than previously suggested, as early as 25,BC, long before the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian groups. The remainders, known as Negritos, form small minority groups in geographically isolated regions. Southeast Asia was dominated by East Asian-related ancestry already in 15,BC, predating the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian peoples.

In the late Neolithic , the Austronesian peoples , who form the majority of the modern population in Brunei, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, and the Philippines, migrated to Southeast Asia from Taiwan in the first seaborne human migration known as the Austronesian Expansion. The Austronesian peoples of Southeast Asia have been seafarers for thousands of years. They spread eastwards to Micronesia and Polynesia , as well as westwards to Madagascar , becoming the ancestors of modern-day Malagasy people , Micronesians , Melanesians , and Polynesians.

Pliny the Elder wrote in his Natural History about Chryse and Argyre , two legendary islands rich in gold and silver, located in the Indian Ocean. Their vessels, such as the vinta , were capable to sail across the ocean. Magellan’s voyage records how much more maneuverable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships. Studies presented by the Human Genome Organisation HUGO through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia show empirically that there was a single migration event from Africa, whereby the early people travelled along the south coast of Asia, first entered the Malay peninsula 50,—90, years ago.

The Orang Asli, in particular the Semang who show Negrito characteristics, are the direct descendants of these earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. These early people diversified and travelled slowly northwards to China, and the populations of Southeast Asia show greater genetic diversity than the younger population of China. Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as BC to 1 AD.

Its influence spread to other parts Southeast Asia. Most Southeast Asian people were originally animist , engaged in ancestors, nature, and spirits worship. These belief systems were later supplanted by Hinduism and Buddhism after the region, especially coastal areas, came under contact with Indian subcontinent during the first century.

They periodically invited Indian Brahmins into their realms and began a gradual process of Indianisation in the region. It then spread into Southeast Asia via Bay of Bengal , Indochina, then Malay Archipelago, leading to thousands of Shiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in the region.

This branch was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture. Mahayana Buddhism established presence in Maritime Southeast Asia, brought by Chinese monks during their transit in the region en route to Nalanda. The spread of these two Indian religions confined the adherents of Southeast Asian indigenous beliefs into remote inland areas.

Maluku Islands and New Guinea were never Indianised and its native people were predominantly animists until the 15th century when Islam began to spread in those areas. After the region came under contact with the Indian subcontinent circa BCE, it began a gradual process of Indianisation where Indian ideas such as religions, cultures, architectures, and political administrations were brought by traders and religious figures and adopted by local rulers.

In turn, Indian Brahmins and monks were invited by local rulers to live in their realms and help transforming local polities to become more Indianised, blending Indian and indigenous traditions. The first Indian-influenced polities established in the region were the Pyu city-states that already existed circa second century BCE, located in inland Myanmar. It served as an overland trading hub between India and China.

It became the dominant trading power in mainland Southeast Asia for about five centuries, provided passage for Indian and Chinese goods and assumed authority over the flow of commerce through Southeast Asia.

By the fifth century CE, trade networking between East and West was concentrated in the maritime route. Foreign traders were starting to use new routes such as Malacca and Sunda Strait due to the development of maritime Southeast Asia.

This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya , Tarumanagara , and Medang emerged. Srivijaya especially became the dominant maritime power for more than 5 centuries, controlling both Strait of Malacca and Sunda Strait. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.

The empire’s capital Angkor hosts majestic monuments—such as Angkor Wat and Bayon. Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor, during its peak, was the largest pre-industrial urban centre in the world. The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the Vietnamese invasion of Champa , ransacking and burning Champa, slaughtering thousands of Cham people, and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture.

During the 13th century CE, the region experienced Mongol invasions , affected areas such as Vietnamese coast, inland Burma and Java. Myinsaing Kingdom became the real ruler of Central Burma and challenged the Mongol rule. This resulted in the second Mongol invasion of Burma in , which was repulsed by Myinsaing.

Singhasari rejected the proposal and injured the envoys, enraged the Mongols and made them sent a large invasion fleet to Java. Unbeknownst to them, Singhasari collapsed in due to a revolt by Kadiri, one of its vassals.

When the Mongols arrived in Java, a local prince named Raden Wijaya offered his service to assist the Mongols in punishing Kadiri. After Kadiri was defeated, Wijaya turned on his Mongol allies, ambushed their invasion fleet and forced them to immediately leave Java.

Majapahit would soon grow into a regional power. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk , whose reign from to marked the empire’s peak when other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula , Borneo , Sumatra , and Bali came under its influence.

Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi , Maluku , and some areas of western New Guinea and southern Philippines , making it one of the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history.

Majapahit then collapsed around It was the last major Hindu kingdom and the last regional power in the region before the arrival of the Europeans. Islam began to make contacts with Southeast Asia in the eighth-century CE, when the Umayyads established trade with the region via sea routes. In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Indian Chola navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram Kedah ; the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive.

Along with Kadaram, Pannai in present-day Sumatra and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too. Soon after that, the king of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu faith, and converted to Islam with the Sultanate of Kedah established in Samudera Pasai converted to Islam in , the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai, and the son became the first sultan of Malacca.

Soon, Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade, and other rulers followed suit. There are several theories to the Islamization process in Southeast Asia. Another theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen Hadramout brought Islam to the region with their large volume of trade.

Many settled in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. This is evident in the Arab-Indonesian, Arab-Singaporean, and Arab-Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries. Finally, the ruling classes embraced Islam and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region. The ruler of the region’s most important port, Malacca Sultanate , embraced Islam in the 15th century, heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam throughout the region as Islam provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes.

Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia. Trade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence, and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country.

Records from Magellan’s voyage show that Brunei possessed more cannon than European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them. Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po , to Malacca, with a retinue of , to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.

Han Li Po’s well constructed is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina , where her retinue settled. The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca , which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa , who in wrote: “He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice.

Western influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later. By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand.

European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east. Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago.

Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links. For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued.

For most, a life with subsistence-level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilizations, hunting and gathering was still hard.


Are Indians also Asian American? Q & A thanks to Judge Srinivasan – Data Bits


Indo-Caribbean, Caribbean people with roots in India. East Indians first arrived in Trinidad as indentured labourers from colonial India in the second half of the nineteenth century following the abolition of slavery in A growing community In fact, people of East Indian origin make up the tenth largest ethnic group in Canada. Canadians of East Indian origin also make up the second largest non-European ethnic group in the country.

In , over , people of East Indian origin lived in Canada. The region is bounded by Bhutan, Nepal and the state of Sikkim in the north, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the south and the country of Bangladesh in the east…. Calgary is a major draw for Indian immigrants with engineering, mining, or related backgrounds.

When it comes to cost of living, Calgary is pretty much middle of the pack in terms of Canadian cities. It is cheaper than Toronto and Vancouver but more expensive than Montreal, the Atlantic cities, and Winnipeg.

White people were rated the most attractive. Jump to navigation Jump to search. What are the East Indies? Table of Contents 1 Who is considered East Indian? Previous Article Who is called the father of microscopy and why? Next Article What is the name given to a warm room in a Roman bath?

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– South Asia – Wikipedia

Southeast Asia is composed of eleven countries of impressive diversity in religion, culture and history: Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Timor-Leste. The Census Bureau defines a person of the Asian race as “having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the. Southeast Asia, vast region of Asia situated east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China. It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental.